ZURICJ/LONDON: Arsenal have been fined 40,000 Swiss francs by FIFA for using sell-on clauses to influence future transfers.

The Premier League club used variation clauses in deals to sell Chuba Akpom to Greek club PAOK Thessaloniki and Joel Campbell to Italian side Frosinone Calcio in 2018.

Where they crossed the line was in imposing a transfer clause in the deal which would have seen them earn more money if either player were sold to an English side.

Arsenal demanded 40pc of the future fee if Akpom were sold to an English team but 30pc if he were sold elsewhere. Similarly, Frosinone could have earned themselves an extra five percent by not selling Campbell back to an English team.

FIFA began investigating the deals back in January and have now found that Arsenal were guilty of using the clauses to influence PAOK and Frosinone’s future business.

Disciplinary committee member Thomas Hollerer wrote in the verdict document: “The committee considers that, by the mere existence of these clauses, Frosinone and PAOK FC are influenced by Arsenal in employment and transfer-related matters.

“The committee considers that the relevant clauses undoubtedly grant Arsenal the ability to influence in employment and transfer-related matters the independence, policies and the performance of PAOK FC and Frosinone’s teams.

“It is evident that in a scenario in which PAOK FC and/or Frosinone receive two similar and/or identical offers for the transfer of the relevant players, one being from a club in the United Kingdom and the other one coming from a club outside the United Kingdom, PAOK FC and Frosinone would be more inclined to accept the offer coming from the club outside the United Kingdom, as it would make the operation most profitable from a purely financial point of view.”

Hollerer is general secretary of the Austrian Football Association. The disciplinary committee panel also featured Togolese Football Association president Kossi Guy Akpovy and Mahmoud Hammami of Tunisia.